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## Workplace Skills:

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By the end of this lesson plan students will be able -

- To recognize examples of kinetic and potential energy.
- To make connections between force, motion, and energy.
- To construct a science experiment about force, motion, and energy.
- To make predictions and reflect on the results.

### Background:

Energy is the ability to do work. Objects can have stored, or potential, energy when work has been done (such as raising an object in the air) or by virtue of their position (such as sitting at the top of a hill). Potential energy changes to kinetic energy when the object moves. Examples include holding a stretched spring (potential energy) and then releasing it (kinetic energy) or holding a box above the ground (potential energy) and then dropping it (kinetic energy).

**Kinetic energy** is a form of energy that results from an object's motion. There are many types of motion that use kinetic energy: translation (moving from one place to another), rotation, and vibration. The measurement of kinetic energy in an object is calculated based on the object's mass and velocity. It is measured in Joules.

**Potential energy** is a form of energy that results from an object's position or arrangement of parts. It is stored energy that can become kinetic energy. It includes potential electrical, chemical, and nuclear energy. The measurement of potential energy in an object is calculated based on the object's mass and its height or distance. It is measured in Joules.

### Materials:

- Bucket or container (1 per group)
- Stopwatch (1 per group)
- Roll of tape (1 per group)
- Object test kit with 1 small ball,1 coin (1 set per group)
- Building materials (cardboard, paper, aluminum foil, etc.)
- Pencil
- Notebook

### Procedure:

### Introduction

- Lead the students in a moving exercise.
- Tell the students that their movement was an example of kinetic energy, which is the energy of motion. Give them an example of kinetic energy, such as a child who is running down the street.
- Explain that potential energy is the energy that is stored in an object. An example of potential energy would be a child who is sitting still.
- Tell the students that they will be doing an experiment and learning more about force, motion, and energy.

### Explicit Instruction/Teacher Modeling

- Explain the concept of
**force**, or push or pull factors, and how various forces can affect objects and the energy within them. - Take the students on a field trip to the playground! Gather the students around the slide so that all can view the example.
- Tell the students that you are going to demonstrate predicting and then testing the effects of potential and kinetic energy using a slide on the playground.
- Students will record notes during your experiment.
- Model the process of writing a question, and make a prediction.
- Show the students how you can use a ball and coin and record the time it takes for each object to move down the slide on the playground.
- Record your results

### Guided Practice/Interactive Modeling

- During the guided practice, students will have the opportunity to develop the idea for their experiment and then present it to the class for suggestions.
- Give students examples of building slides, swings, and tunnels to complete their experiment.
- Divide students into groups of 3-5 students each.
- Direct the students to brainstorm possible ways they can can build a structure to test force and energy and how the objects are affected.
- Give the groups 5-10 minutes to discuss as smaller groups and then call the students back to the whole group.
- Allow individual groups to share their ideas, and challenge other students to ask clarifying questions using the question guides.

### Independent Working Time

- Distribute a bucket or container with the following items: building materials (such as cardboard, paper, aluminum foil, etc.), tape, an object test kit, and a stopwatch.
- If desired, assign a role to each student (such as assigning a timekeeper, a recorder, or a reporter).
- Give the students 30 minutes to complete their building and experiment. If desired, break this apart into individual sections and notify students how much time is left before they will need to start the next part.
- Circulate around the groups to assist as needed.

### Differentiation

**Enrichment:**Challenge the students to use their groups' structures and improve them in some way. Challenge the students to brainstorm other materials that could be used to create an additional invention.**Support:**For students who have difficulty understanding the concept of force and motion, use several classroom objects to demonstrate the difference between kinetic and potential energy.

- End the lesson with group reflections. Ask each group to share what they tested in their experiments and what they learned.
- Ask clarifying questions and challenge other groups to also ask questions about the experiments.
- Conclude the lesson by asking students what they learned about force and energy when observing various objects.

- Lead the students in a group discussion describing what they learned from the project. Potential questions include:
*How fast did the ball go? Did the items that were heavier go faster? How does energy affect speed?*